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Rare earth ore introduction and application
As the mineral elements impurities, the rare earth ore is dispersed in rock minerals and rare metal minerals, with the form of isomorphism replacement. This kind of ores can be called as the ores with rare-earth elements, such as apatite and fluorite.
Rare-earth metals are widely used in many areas, such as electronic, petroleum chemical industry, metallurgy, machinery, energy, light industry, environmental protection and agriculture. The application rare earth can produce flourescent material, rare earth metal hydride battery materials, electric light source materials, permanent magnetic materials, hydrogen storage material, catalytic materials, precision ceramic material, laser materials, superconducting materials, magnetostrictive material, magnetic cooling material, magnetic optical storage material, optical fiber materials, etc.
Rare-earth ore beneficiation process
The rare earth minerals that are mined, only have a few hundredths of rare earth oxide content and some are more lower. In order to meet the production requirements of smelting, before smelting, beneficiation is used to separate the rare earth minerals and gangue minerals from other valuable minerals. So the content of rare earth oxides can be improved and rare earth ore concentrates that meet the rare earth metallurgy requirements can be got. Gravity concentration is commonly used for rare earth ore dressing and often combined with flotation, magnetic separation to form variety combination of mineral processing process.
1. Gravity separation method: the different density of rare earth minerals and gangue minerals is used to do separation. Commonly used gravity separation equipments are: cone concentrating machine, spiral concentration machine, shaking table, etc. In order to achieve the purpose of primary enrichment or get rare earth concentrate, the gravity separation is used for separating the rare earth minerals from gangue minerals with low density, such as quartz and calcite. In the beneficiation of rare-earth lode, the gravity separation method is also sometimes used as a means of pre-enrichment.
2. Flotation method: according to the difference of surface chemical and physical properties between rare earth minerals and associated minerals, the flotation is used to separate the rare earth minerals from associated gangue and its minerals to get concentrates. The flotation method is the main mineral beneficiation method which is widely used in rare earth lode production. In the coastal sand production, the heavy concentrate can be got by gravity separation. The flotation method is also used to get rare earth ore concentrate from the heavy concentrate.
3. Magnetic separation: some rare earth minerals has weak magnetic. The different magnetic coefficient between these rare earth minerals and associated gangue and other minerials can be used. Different magnetic separation machines with different magnetic field intensity are used to separate the rare earth from other minerals. Strong magnetic separation can be also used to separate the monazite from zirconium stones and quartz lamp minerial.
In the rare earth beneficiation, in order to simplify the gravity separation process, sometimes strong magnetic separation is used to pre-enrich rare earth minerals. With the continuous development of strong magnetic technology, strong magnetic separation will be more and more widely used in the rare earth mineral processing.
Rare-earth ore processing equipment
Gravity separation is often used for rare-earth ore processing. The different density of rare earth minerals and gangue minerals is used to do separation. Commonly used gravity separation equipments are: cone concentrating machine, spiral concentration machine, shaking table, etc.
Cone concentrating machine can be assembled into two forms: single cone and double cone. Double cone has two sorting face and larger throughput so it is used for rare earth coarse concentrating. Single cone is used for rare earth fine concentrating. According to different quality requirements of the rare earth minerals, the single cone and double cone can be combined to form multi-cone concentrating machine, which can do coarse concentrating, fine concentrating and scavenging in one machine set.
Spiral concentration machine is that a chute is bent into heliciform around the vertical axis. To improve the quality of rare earth mineral heavy product, several watering points are set in inner edge, called washing water. The washing water in inner edge can rush out part of light minerals, which is mixed in the heavy product. So the quality of the concentrates can be improved. The tailings are discharged by the end of the bottom slot.
Shaking table is gravity separation equipment that used to select fine grain materials,such as rare earth ores. Longitudinal reciprocating motion of the bed surface can be realized by crank connecting type transmission mechanism.
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