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Application of Stone in Construction

Application of Stone in Construction

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Stone applications in construction as a rugged stone construction materials, they have been widely applied in various types of civil construction engineering. Made from original scripts sheltered from the mining and can be processed into various types of stone, these stones were important material for building houses, paved roads, bridges and dam, in recent decades due to the rapid development of production technology of concrete, direct application of stone in construction is gradually reduced. In modern times, application of stone in construction can be divided into three categories:

One is in the form of various types of massive stone, sheet rock, stone materials used in housing, roads, bridges and culverts, tunnels, dams and riverbanks and other ancillary works in construction projects, such as embankment, dams, river banks protection works; slope, ditches, drains, retaining walls and other masonry reinforcement works; bridges, culverts, tunnels, dams auxiliary masonry works.

Second, after crushing and screening by the different sizes of gravel, pebbles form aggregates, used in cement, asphalt, gravel and other types of concrete, stabilized soil, and other stabilizing material composition.

Third, in the form of decorative materials can be used in various construction projects and occasions with landscaping and artistic effect.

In the above three types of applications, the largest and most widely used is crushed gravel aggregates.

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Aggregates by some inert material, such as sand, stone chips, gravel (pebbles), gravel, slag material consisting as a collection, it plays a skeleton role and fillers in a variety of mixed materials.

Sand can be divided into natural sand and artificial sand (mechanisms sand) two categories, the former is made ​​from natural rocks by continually weathering and remaining of the most durable fine aggregate, the latter by repeated rolling from crushed stone or gravel. Sand particle size is usually between 2mm to 75 shoulder blade. Natural sand can be also divided into natural river sand, sea sand and hill sand, river sand has the best quality, sea sand containing salt can usually required after panning, mountain sand is often mixed with soil and organic matter, and should be used carefully.

Gravel and pebbles were cracked by a natural rock after weathering, prolonged erosion, water transport and formed the main raw materials as slate, the ceramic and pottery sand which is made ​​of high-temperature roasting, is currently commonly used in artificial lightweight aggregate. In addition to the artificial lightweight aggregate, there are also natural lightweight aggregate, such as volcanic gravel, pumice, etc.

According to the aggregate of mineral components that are different, aggregates can also be classified according to Mineralogy. Aggregate mineralogical classification has a great significance in project to understand the nature of aggregates, because physical and mechanical properties of aggregates (such as density, porosity, strength, etc.) and chemical-physical properties (such as wettability, adhesion, chemical reactivity, etc.) are associated with the aggregate in the composition and structure of the mineral. It is precisely because minerals contained determine aggregates its chemical composition and crystal structure, and thus the identification and the understanding of aggregate mineral composition, will help determine whether a given set of materials suitable for engineering purposes. Because through the analysis of the information can be expected to get some possible physical and chemical properties, So as to avoid the use of those who do not comply with the work requirements and contain harmful minerals aggregates.

The most common and important minerals in aggregate are: silica mineral (quartz), feldspar (orthoclase and plagioclase), ferromagnetic mineral (Muscovite, vermiculite), carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite) and clay minerals (illite, kaolinite, and montmorillonite).

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